MOLNIYA Series

"Molniya" is the four stage launch vehicle developed on the base of "R-7" launch vehicle with addition of the 3-rd and the 4-th stages modules.

"Molniya" launch vehicle is designed for injection of radio relay satellites of "Molniya"-type, research satellites of "Prognoz"-type and satellites of "Kosmos"-series.

The efficient injection scheme is based on usage of parking orbit and launch of the fourth stage under zero-gravity and allows injecting the payload into stretched elliptical and transfer orbits to other objects of the solar system. "Molniya-M" launch vehicle was used for injecting the first interplanetary spacecraft to the Moon, Venus and Mars. On December, 1995 "IRS-1C" Indian satellite launch was made into circular Sun-synchronous orbit. The first launch of "Molniya" launch vehicle was made on October 10, 1960.

The launch vehicle was modernized in 1965. The modification was named "Molniya-M".

The operation of "Molniya-M" launch vehicle was finished in 2010.

 
 

MOLNIYA Series

Lifting characteristics of "Molniya-M" launch vehicle

(with 2,7 m nose fairing)

Launch site

Inclination (degree)

Circular orbit average altitude (km)

High-elliptical orbit altitude (km)

Injected payload mass (kg)

Plesetsk

62,8

510

40000

2000

Number of

Launch Vehicles Started Up

1
8
6
9

 
         

Video

         

Images

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