SOYUZ Series

"Soyuz" is a name of the three-stage middle class launch vehicles, developed on the base of "R-7" launch vehicle with addition of third stage unit. "Soyuz"-series launch vehicle has been in operation since 1963. Launch vehicle modification (1963) is named "Voskhod" in mass media. Launch vehicle modification (1966) is officially named "Soyuz". In 1973 the launch vehicle was subjected to considerable modernization, having received the name "Soyuz-U" in mass media; the launch vehicle modification (1982) was named "Soyuz-U2". "Soyuz-FG" launch vehicle (2001) is the further modification of "Soyuz-U" launch vehicle.

"Soyuz"-series launch vehicles are intended for injecting of automatic spacecraft for national economy and scientific research ("Resurs-F1", "Resurs-F2", "Foton", ”Bion" ) and spacecraft for special purposes ("Kosmos"-series satellites), as well as manned and cargo spacecraft ("Soyuz" and "Progress") into near-earth orbit.

The first launch of "Soyuz"-series launch vehicle was made on November 16, 1963 ("Voskhod" spaceship was launched by "Voskhod" launch vehicle). 1223 launches of "Soyuz"-series launch vehicles (36 among them were failure) were performed from 1963 to 2012. "Soyuz-U" launch vehicle is the most mass modification of "Soyuz"-series launch vehicles.

At the present time "Soyuz-U", "Soyuz-FG", "Soyuz-2-1А", "Soyuz-2-1B", launch vehicles are in operation and in production.

At present "Soyuz-U", "Soyuz-FG", "Soyuz-2-1A", "Soyuz-2-1B", "Soyuz-ST-A", "Soyuz-ST-B" account for the major part of launches within the framework of the Federal space program and Program of international cooperation in the field of space.

All Russian manned flight programs are carried out with the "Soyuz-FG" launch vehicle.

         

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