The earlier operating scientific satellites

Rapid development of space engineering in the mid-sixties of the 20th century gave scientists a number of tasks, which demanded the prompt solution.

Necessity of testing new structural materials, instruments, modules and systems in flight conditions, as well as necessity of studying the environment in which tests were conducted, resulted in two lines of the space research: applied experiments and basic research. Spacecraft built by TsSKB-Progress provide a unique opportunity of studying the space and the Earth surface and atmosphere.

In 1968, a versatile automated Nauka spacecraft was built. The spacecraft was equipped by various scientific and applied hardware. During its operation in orbit, complex research and experiments were conducted and the unique information was received.

The Institute of Space Research of the Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Atmosphere Physics, the P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, the A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, the Institute of Applied Optics, and the Research Institute of Thermal Processes etc. took part in conduction of experiments and processing of scientific data. The results of scientific researches are published in more than 110 scientific papers, collections, and monographs, and presented at international conferences and symposiums.

In 1969, for research of high-energy particles that are connected with the studies of charge structure, primary particles energy, and characteristic of their interaction with a substance, TsSKB-Progress developed two spacecraft called Energiya and Efir.*

* The article was written based on the materials taken from book - Spacecraft building:research and development by TsSKB-Progress/ edited by A.N.Kirilin- Samara: Publishing House, AGNI, 2011-p.280.