IKAR Upper Stage

"Ikar" Injection Module is intended for payload transfer from injection orbit to the final orbit and satellite deployment in a specific sequence and directions with determined orientation accuracy and attitude control.

"Ikar" injection module can be used for enhancement of Soyuz-U, Soyuz-FG.

After separation from launch vehicle "Ikar" Injection Module allows to deliver payload mass from 750 to 3920 kg to the circular and elliptical final orbits at 250-1400 km altitude with inclinations of i=51.8º (Baikonur cosmodrome) and i=62.8º; i=67.1º; i=81.4º; i=90º (Plesetsk cosmodrome).

"Ikar" Injection Module particular feature is its long autonomous operation during the orbital flight. During the orbital flight final orbit parameters for the payload are formed and satellite separation in a specific sequence and in a specific direction is achieved. "Ikar" Injection Module can be deployed by the preset yaw for satellite separation in a specific direction. At the time of satellite separation "Ikar" Injection Module provides specified orientation accuracy and attitude control accuracy.

"Ikar" Injection Module provides satellites with a fixed number of control commands, pyrotechnic commands, telemetry channels and through circuits, gives an opportunity of providing complementary satellite power supply from launch to separation from the Injection Module.

High reliability of Injection Module on-board systems is achieved owing to functional redundancy and control algorithms, diagnostics and reserves management during the process of accomplishing functional tasks.

"Ikar" Injection Module integrated propulsion system is intended for multiple (up to 50 times) actuations.

The concept of maximum borrowing of structural and hardware base of instrument and accessories bay of base product, which has justified itself during the process of long-term operation is taken as a basis for "Ikar" Injection Module development. "Ikar" Injection Module represents a single module, consisting of unpressurized accessories bay and pressurized instrument bay, fixed on it, with adapter for payload mounting.

"Ikar" Injection Module integrated propulsion system represents multistart (up to 50 actuations) liquid fuel propulsion system with pressure fuel feeding.

In 1999 there were launched 6 "Soyuz-U" launch vehicles with "Ikar" Injection Module, each of them simultaneously injected 4 American "Globalstar" communication satellites into orbit.


IKAR Upper Stage

"Soyuz" launch vehicle/"Ikar" Injection Module technical characteristics at the time of "Globalstar" satellites launch from Baikonur launch site

Transfer injection orbit parameters:



minimum altitude

240 km

maximum altitude

920 km

latitude of minimum altitude

50,9º northern latitude

period of revolution

96 min

Final orbit parameters (phasing orbit):



medium radius

7298,4 km


< 0,01 km


dry "Ikar" Injection Module

2310 kg

full-loaded "Ikar" Injection Module

3210 kg

"Ikar" Injection Module overall dimensions:


2720 mm


2590 mm

Injection Module lifetime

1080000 Nf

Injection Module lifetime

no less than 30 hours

Attitude control error before satellites separation:

angular error

± 1,7°

"Ikar" Injection Module angular rotation rate don’t increase


Vernier and retro engine thrust of "Ikar" Injection Module integrated propulsion system

2943 N

Specific pulse of Ikar’s engine package thrust

3020 Nf/kg